Validation in Seam

24 Apr, 2009
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Validations are a huge part of any software development. We need to validate that the data being entered from the UI is correct i.e of correct type or we are not leaving a notNull/notEmpty fields to be blank. There are so many ways to fulfill these requirements and we can have UI level validations or persistence level validations.

First lets look at the validations that we can have.

Hibernate Validations: By using annotations, it is very easy to apply validations on an entity e.g we can have @NotNull annotation which basically means that the fields cannot be Not Null. We can also have @Length and specify the min and max length for a particular field. So lets say that we have an entity User which looks like

public class User {
    private String userName;
    private String passwordHash;
    public String getUserName() {
        return userName;
    public String getPasswordHash() {
        return passwordHash;

Now after the User entity parameters have been updated and they are ready to persist, hibernate validation will be invoked to assert that the fields userName, and passwordHash are not null/empty or that the length of the field userName is indeed between 1 and 5.

JSF Validations: JSF provides the UI level validations and they are done in the Process Validation phase of the JSF life cycle. These are done to ensure that the data is valid before updating the model data so that when the Invoke Application phase is called , we can be sure of the validity of the data. With JSF , we can do the same validations as above (i.e on User Entity) on the UI. Lets look at the JSF code for the field userName

      Name: *

Having required=”true” in the form specifies that the corresponding component must have a value. JSF tag <f:validateLength> ascertains that the length of value entered by the user for the field userName is between 1 and 5. Here each field must be validated explicitly.

How Seam binds these Validations together

Seam brings both Hibernate and JSF validations together to perform double checks on every data feld. It does this by first invoking UI Validations (JSF) and then annotation based Hibernate Validations. Seam uses ModelValidator to invoke the hibernate Validations after the JSF validations have been successfully executed. So in Seam framework, Hibernate validations are applied twice. First is when the user enters any data and the framework validates it and the second when the successfully validated data is being persisted.

Seam has introduced new tags <s:validate/> and <s:validateAll/> which invoke the Hibernate Validator for the input component. It registers a Hibernate Validator-JSF Validator bridge which helps in performing the Hibernate Validations from the UI to provide a feedback to the user. <s:validate> tag is required for each individual input component for which we want to do validations but we can easily just put all the components within one <s:validateAll> tag to invoke the validations on all the input fields. Lets see how our Seam-JSF code will look now.


Here tag eliminates the need for tag as it uses the annotation on the corresponding model class property to do the hibernate validations.

Some weird Behaviour

Even though Seam integrates JSF and Hibernate validations very nicely, there is a little weird behaviour that I came across while investigating how validations worked in Seam.

Specifying @NotNull on the model does not eliminate the requirement for required=”true” to appear in the JSF. This is due to a limitation of the JSF validation architecture. If required=”true” is specified on a tag in JSF, and the field is not inputted any value then the Hibernate Validations are not activated as the JSF framework first looks at the value of the “required” field. JSF activates hibernate validatations only if we input any value. . So lets consider a scenario where we have 3 conditions:

1. required=”true” is not specified in JSF
2. @NotNull annotation on the field in the entity and @Length(max=4)
3. No value is inputted and submitted the form.

In this scenario, JSF will not activate hibernate validations and and an empty string will be passed to the application. Now, the second level hibernate validations will be activated and since @NotNull check will pass as it has a not empty string , the field will be persisted to the database. @NotEmpty annoatation is a good replacement for @NotNull if required=”true” is not specified. If we add the required = “true” in JSF with @NotNull annotation, then Hibernate Validations will be bypassed and “value is required” error message will added to the Faces Context by the JSF framework. Second level validations will still be done while persisting the data.

AJAX Validations: Seam provides a great AJAX support and it is especially beneficial for the validations. In our previous example, all the validations were performed on the click of the submit button. But with Ajax, it is possible to get instant validation upon losing the focus on the input field. Ajax4jsf provides a tag which can be used to send an Ajax request from the JSF page. So the seam-jsf code with Ajax support will look like


Now, if we consider the same scenario as above, i.e
1. required=”true” is not specified in JSF
2. @NotNull annotation on the field in the entity and @Length(max=4)
3. No value is inputted and focus is moved out of the field

Here again, hibernate Validations will not get invoked by the JSF. Also, the second level hibernate validations will not be done as the form has not been submitted so no error message will be displayed. Similarly, if required=”true” is added to the JSF, JSF framework will check the required flag and add the error message to the context.

We can also do custom validations using Ajax. Let us consider a simple example of registering a user for your application, we can have a field for username, password and confirm password. We can easily validate that the value inputted in the confirm Password field is the same in password field using Ajax. The JSF code for the confirm Password field will look something like this

    Password Confirm

Here RegisterAction is a seam component and validatePassword is the method which is called after the event “onblur” occurs. The string “passwordConfirm” is passed to the registerAction and is validated against the “password” string entered by the user. Corresponding message is added to the Faces Messages and since this method call is done using Ajax, the message is displayed as soon as the focus is shifted for the confirm Passowrd input field.

public class RegisterAction implements Register {
	@In(create = true)
	User user;
	@In(create = true)
	UserHome userHome;
	private FacesMessages facesMessages;
	private String passwordConfirm;
	public boolean validatePassword() {
		boolean validPassword = (user.getPasswordHash() != null && (user
		if (!validPassword) {
					"Passwords dont match. Re-enter your password");
		return validPassword;

The purpose of this blog was to talk about how validations are done in Seam and also a few weird scenarios that I encountered during my research on the topic.


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