Using Value Stream Mapping to Eliminate Waste
You experience that things are slow, and it’s hard to finish anything within an iteration. You’ve tried to deliver smaller increments, but it is still a struggle to complete these in a reasonable amount of time. One of the reasons of the perceived slowness might be that wasteful activities and unnecessary handovers are hiding in your development process.
A Value Stream Map (VSM) can help you uncover these kinds of waste in your software delivery process
Value Stream Mapping is a form of lean-management and was at the foundation of the Toyota Production System. A VSM maps the series of activities that take a product or service from the beginning of a process (idea) until it reaches the customer.
Even though the technique stems from the manufacturing world, it can be applied to software as well. In software development, in particular, it is a helpful technique because of the high cost of context switching associated with wait times.
Creating a VSM is a bit of an investment but very often leads to double digit-efficiency improvements. Updating the VSM over time gives you an insight into how your teams grow.
I recommend doing it in a workshop format where everyone who is involved in the delivery process participates in mapping the activities from inception until deployment into production. The technique is simple, applying it requires some practice.
Choose a few relevant and representative tickets that the team has recently completed to map all the activities involved in the delivery process. For example, Writing code, wait for code review, creating documentation, etc.
Next, classify each activity as Customer Value Adding (CVA), Necessary Non-Value Adding (NNVA), and Waste.
In the above example I would classify the activities as following. Writing code -> CVA, Running CI pipeline, execute automated tests -> NNVA, Wait for code review -> Waste
It is now possible to calculate the cycle efficiency by dividing the sum of CVA by the total lead time. The outcome will be a baseline for your teams from which you improve!
The visual and collaboration aspects are important, and the mapping of your process will already lead to ideas for optimizations. Next to that, it can also bring an increased level of empathy in the case of siloed organizations. By regularly updating the VSM, you will help make the growth of a team more tangible. I would even go so far as to say that collaboration is the most crucial aspect of VSM.
You can, and it will still be beneficial for optimizing the cycle time of the development team. The advantage is that a team can do it without any dependencies on the rest of the organization. It is smaller and is easier to organize. Most value is achieved by mapping the entire value stream from inception until delivery. If involving everyone is hard, you might just have discovered an organizational and/or cultural problem.
Yes, a client I helped recently had a double code review (one in the team and one outside). The massive amount of handovers and wait times had always been hidden but now became visible to the teams. Because of all the waiting, teams would switch to other tasks, which effectively meant that everything was in progress at the same time, leading to more complexity and loss of focus.
We convinced one of the teams to experiment with pair programming. Besides increased knowledge sharing, this significantly reduced the amount of waste. Pairing made them 33% faster(!), creating an upward spiral and motivation for the team.
Another client had a Product Owner signoff step, which, on average, took several days to start, adding waste to the process. The development teams were very aware of the problem, but the VSM exercise also helped convince the Product Owner through data that this quality gate was incredibly expensive and would lead to context switching. It became clear that the PO needed to work more closely with the team throughout the iteration instead of validating features after implementation. You will be surprised by the insights about what the data shows!
In Scrum, the three pillars Transparency, Inspection, and Adaptation should enable autonomous, T-shaped teams to self organize, optimize and eliminate waste. In reality, teams with various maturity levels struggle to do so. Often they are not aware of the wasteful nature of certain activities and the hidden cost of handovers, so they do not try to optimize for this.
It can be hard for Scrum Masters and Agile Coaches effectively facilitate and challenge teams in this area.
I do make some adjustments for Scrum: The only official roles in a Scrum team are Dev, PO, and SM. I tend to focus on the activities and not work from roles. Furthermore, (mature) Scrum teams tend to be less rigid and more fluid in terms of the flow of work. Still, certain steps do always take place and lead to a result which usually mirrors the CI/CD pipeline with all the human activities required before commit.
Tooling exists and can make the automation of the calculations easier, as well as repeatability and storing results from specific measurement periods. I find the results are better using sharpies and stickies on a physical board. The visual aspect of it is significant; through collaborating interactively important insights are derived and a shared understanding is reached.
Consider not using the technique if you expect it might be used to measure the performance of a team and be used against them or when psychological safety is lacking. When safety is missing or fragile it will impact the spirit and creativity of the session which will not work.
The results from the VSM are an indication and should not be treated as hard numbers. Also, make sure that creating the VSM doesn’t become waste by itself by spending enormous amounts of time gathering the input data. Estimates will usually do fine!
VSM’s can help you make inefficiencies in the development process visible. In my opinion, a VSM is an essential element in the toolbox of any coach. Furthermore, for teams, it tends to be inspiring and can help kickstart a culture of continuous improvement. Last but not least, a VSM can make team progress and coaching results more tangible. Try it!
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